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 Valdis Isbrandsdottir
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Norwegian Culture

(The following pages are always under construction/evolving)

Food of the Vikings

Recipes

During this age,  the food consumed included a variety of meats, grains, dairy, vegetables and fish. 

(while listing the following I failed to include where certain foods were found, so until I update this page please check historical sources for specific locations where the following food has been found in excavations)

Meat: Bear, boar, cattle, chickens, deer, duck, elk, foxes, geese, goats, hare, lamb, pigs, rabbit, ravens, reindeer, sheep, squirrel.
Fish and other sea-life: Bream, cod, flat-fish, halibut, haddock, herring,  horse mackerel, ling, perch, pike, porpoises, roach, rudd, saithe, salmon, seals (blubber used as butter or for frying), shark, shrimp, smelt, whales, 
Vegetables: Angelica, beets, cabbages, Carrots, endive, fava beans, leeks, mushrooms, onions, peas, radishes, seaweed, 
Herbs: coriander, dill, mustard
Fruits: Apples, bilberries, blackberries, bullaces, cherries, cloudberries, crabapple, elderberries, hawthorn berries, plums, raspberries, rose hips, rowan berries, sloes, sour cherries, strawberries
Honey instead of sugar
Drinks: beer, mead, milk, wine (upper class)
Bread and Grains: Barley (Denmark, Iceland, Norway, Sweden) , buckwheat, millet, oats (Iceland, Norway), rice (imported from Italy) rye (Finland, Eastern Sweden, parts of Denmark), Wheat (Birka, Dublin, Jorvik, Oseberg). National Bread: Lefse (a flat bread that doesn't need an oven). 
*Porridge or gruel consumed daily, made from whole or cracked barley grains.
Seaweed
Barley Flour
Milk was used to make butter, buttermilk, cheese, curds, skyr, whey (beverage or preservative to pickle fish and meat).
Eggs
Seeds: (Jorvik and Dublin) Hempseed oilLinseed oil, rapeseed oil.

Ground fish: Names like "Kvits°yball" and "Kristiansundball" indicate place of origin on the coast and "mackerel cakes" or "ground saithe cakes" reveal the raw material.

Preserving Meat and Fish: 
Dried, fermentation, freezing (in the North), pickled, salted (mostly southern areas), smoked.
Fish was cured under pressure in brine.

Preserving Fruit:
Drying
Preserved in honey or sugar (Middle Ages)

Preserving Vegetables:
Drying

Cooking Meat and Fish:
Roasted on a spit
Baked in deep pit covered with hot stones
Boiled in iron cauldron

Utensils: 
wooden bowls
drinking horns
knives
fingers
small spoons (no forks)

The most common of baked goods were flatbread and "lefse" (aka griddlecakes).  Lefse can be made crisp (so they can be stored) or soft (but will not keep as they are usually made with cream).


Scandinavian Recipes

I do not claim that all of the following recipes originated in the Middle Ages, they are just a collection of recipes I have come across that are native to the Scandinavian Territories.

Some of the following recipes may use grams for measurements.

Appetizers & Beverages

Soups & Salads

Meats, Poultry & Fish

Vegetables & Side Dishes

Pancakes, Porridges, Puddings & Pastries

Breads

Cakes, Cookies & Desserts


Appetizers & Beverages

Danish Blue Cheese Gateau | Eggnog | Glogg | Herbed Danish Blue Cheese Dip 

Scandinavian Beers and Schnapps | Sima (Finnish Lemon Punch)

Danish Blue Cheese Gateau

2 cups self-rising flour, sifted 

6 tablespoons butter, softened 

pinch salt

2 tablespoons mayonnaise 

4 to 5 tablespoons milk 

Filling:

6 ounces Danish blue cheese, mashed

1/4 cup chopped celery mashed 

pepper to taste

1/2 cup whipping cream, divided

1 medium-sized tomato, thinly sliced 

2 ounces cream cheese

softened celery leaves for garnish 

Combine the flour and salt. Cut the butter into the flour. Add the mayonnaise and enough milk to make a soft dough. Knead and divide dough in half. Rollout first half and cut into an 8-inch circle; place on a greased baking sheet. Roll out second half; place on another greased baking sheet and cut into 8 wedges. Bake at 400░ for 15 minutes. Cool on baking sheets.

Filling: Combine the blue cheese with two-thirds of the whipped cream, celery, and pepper; mix well. Place the 8-inch pastry circle on a plate and arrange all but 4 of the tomato slices over it. Spread the blue cheese mixture over tomato slices. Place the 8 triangles over the cheese. Combine the remaining whipped cream and cream cheese. Place the cream cheese mixture into a piping bag and pipe a rosette on top of each triangle. Decorate with celery leaves and reserved tomato slices.

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Eggnog

8 egg yolks 

4 cups orange juice 

4 tablespoons confectioners' sugar 

1 cup brandy

Beat together egg yolks and sugar. Add orange juice and brandy. Serves 4.

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Glogg

4 cups of claret or port wine 

10 whole cloves

2 cups dark rum 

peel of 1/2 lemon, cut into strips 

4 cups brandy divided 

peel of 1/2 orange, cut into strips 

4 cardamom seeds peeled 

1/2 cup blanched almonds 

3 cinnamon sticks 

1/2 cup dark raisins 

1 cup sugar cubes

Bring wine, rum and 3 cups of brandy to a boil. Tie all spices in a cheesecloth bag. Add bag, almonds, and raisins to hot liquid. Reduce heat. Simmer about 10 minutes. Remove from heat. Place the sugar in a large sieve. With sieve over a saucepan pour some of the hot liquid over the sugar cubes. Set fire to the cubes and continue to spoon the flaming cubes with liquid until they are dissolved. Cool 30 minutes. Add remaining brandy. Refrigerate for a few days and serve hot, garnished with additional raisins and almonds.

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Herbed Danish Blue Cheese Dip

1/2 cup sour cream 

12/ teaspoon dried dill weed 

1/3 cup mayonnaise 

1 clove garlic minced

1 tablespoon lemon juice 

2 tablespoons minced green onion 

1/2 teaspoon tarragon 

1/4 cup chopped watercress

1/2 cup Danish blue cheese, crumbled

Combine all ingredients in order given. chill covered at least 2 hours. Serve with fresh vegetables.

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Sima Finland

2 lemons 

1/4 teaspoon ground ginger 

4 quarts water 

12 ounces light-colored beer if desired 

2 1/2 cups brown sugar, packed 

2 tablespoons sugar, divided 

1 envelope active dry yeast 

1 tablespoon raisins divided

Scrape all the yellow lemon zest from the lemons; set aside. Peel and discard the white peel. Slice the lemons very thin. Bring water to a boil and dissolve brown sugar in water. Add lemon zest and slices. Remove from heat and cool. Pour into a large nonmetal container. Stir in yeast, ginger, and beer. Cover and set aside overnight or until little bubbles form. Sterilize pint or quart bottles or a gallon bottle. Scald lids, caps or corks. Add sugar and a few raisins into each bottle. Strain liquid into bottles. Attach caps, lids or corks and set aside until raisins rise to the top, about 8 hours to 2 days. Serve cold.

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Scandinavian Beers & Schnapps

Danish Beers: Albani, Carlsberg, Thor , Ceres, Faxe, Neptune, and Tuborg.

Finnish Beer: Koff.

Icelandic Beer: Polar .

Swedish Beers: Pripps and Spendrup's. Norwegian Beers: Mack, Frydenlund,

Aass, Ringnes, and Hansa.

Schnapps: Aquavit is a caraway liquor.

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Soups & Salads

Danish Stew | Lamb and Cabbage Stew | Norwegian Stew


Danish Stew

1 2/3 pounds lean beef or veal 

2 bay leaves

5 large onions, chopped 

3 pounds potatoes, peeled and diced

3/4 cup butter 

6 teaspoons butter, shaped into balls 

12 whole peppercorns 

chopped chives

Saute meat and onion in 3/4 cup butter until soft. Add boiling water to cover meat and onion, add peppercorns and bay leaves. Simmer for about 20 minutes. Add potatoes. Cook until the potatoes have blended with the meat broth, giving the appearance of a very thick soup. Remove from heat. Place in small dishes, garnish with balls of butter on each and serve with chopped chives on the side. Serves 6.

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Lamb and Cabbage Stew

1 kg lamb

1 kg cabbage

salt

black peppercorns

30 g wheat flour

Slice shoulder, breast, back or loin of lamb into portions and lay the pieces in a casserole alternately with layers of cabbage. Sprinkle salt and pepper between the meat and cabbage.

Add boiling water. Bring to a boil and simmer until the meat is tender (about 30 minutes). Flavour with salt and pepper. Stir the flour into a little cold water and then add this carefully to the stock to thicken it. Bring to a boil.

Serve with boiled potatoes.

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Norwegian Stew

1 1/2 cups diced beef

1/2 cup diced fresh pork

1 1/2 cups cooked, diced corned beef

4 cups diced raw potatoes 

1 onion, diced

1/2 teaspoon pepper

Cover meats with water and boil slowly for 1 to 2 hours. Add the remaining ingredients and cook until tender.

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Meats, Poultry & Fish

Apple-Stuffed Pork Loin | Christmas Ham with Prunes | Marinated Salmon | Meatcakes
Norwegian Chicken & Gjetost Sauce
| Norwegian Meatballs | Roast Goose | Roast Duck | Spiced Meat Roll
Swedish Meatballs | Traditional Icelandic Sunday Roast


Apple-Stuffed Pork Loin

1 pork loin roast, 4 to 6 pounds, boned

10 pitted prunes, halved

1 tablespoon salt, divided

1 green apple, peeled, cored, and sliced

1 teaspoon freshly ground black pepper, divided

3 cups chicken or beef broth, or beer

Lay meat on a flat surface, fat-side down. Arrange apple slices and prunes over surface of roast. Sprinkle with 1 teaspoon salt and 1/2 teaspoon pepper. Tightly roll the roast, enclosing the filling. Tie roast in at least 3 places. Rub outside of roast with remaining salt and pepper. Place in a deep roasting pan. Bake 21/2 to 3 hours or until meat is tender. Baste every 30 minutes with about 1/2 cup of broth or beer. Remove meat to a serving platter and keep warm. Strain pan juices into a saucepan and cook until the sauce is reduced to about 1 cup of glaze. Serve roast with glaze. Serves 8.

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Christmas Ham with Prunes

1 fresh ham, 6 to 8 pounds 

1 10 1/2-ounce can beef consomme 

20 pitted prunes, coarsely chopped 

1 cup currant jelly

1 cup minced onion 

1/2 cup orange juice 

1 1/2 cups pared, chopped apple 

1/3 cup port wine 

1/4 cup applesauce 

1/2 teaspoon salt

Have butcher remove center bone from a fresh ham and cut a deep pocket in the cavity. Combine prunes, onion, apple, and applesauce. Stuff ham with apple mixture, overlap and secure ends. Score the fat side of the ham and place fat side up in a shallow baking dish. Pour consomme over ham. Roast at 325░ for 30 to 35 minutes per pound, basting often. Transfer ham to a serving platter and keep warm. Remove and discard fat from pan juices. Bring pan juices to a boil and cook for 5 minutes. Add remaining ingredients and simmer for 10 to 15 minutes. Serve gravy with ham

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Marinated Salmon

3-pound piece of salmon, scaled 

3 teaspoons freshly ground pepper 

2 teaspoons vegetable oil 

4 tablespoons salt

4 tablespoons sugar 

1 large bunch fresh dill, divided

Cut the salmon down the center and remove the backbone and any small bones. Moisten with oil and rub with sugar, pepper, and salt. Spread about 1/3 of the dill in the bottom of a jellyroll pan. Place 1/2 the salmon on dill skin-side down. Cover with the second 1/3 of the dill. Place the remaining salmon skin-side up on this layer. Sprinkle with remaining dill. Place a pan with several full cans or weights on top of the salmon and refrigerate for about 3 days. Scrape off dill and seasonings. Slice diagonally into thin slices. Serve garnished with lemon wedges.

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Meatcakes

500 g minced beef

1 1/2 teaspoons salt

1/4 teaspoon pepper

1/4 teaspoon nutmeg

1 spice measure ginger

2 1/2 tablespoons potato flour

about 2 dl. milk or water

Work the salt into the meat until it becomes sticky, then work in the spices and potato flour. Gradually add the milk or water.

Shape the mixture into round cakes and fry them in butter in a hot pan. Transfer to a pot with a little water and simmer for about 10 minutes.

Serve the meatcakes with boiled potatoes, stewed green peas or cabbage, red whortleberries and thick brown gravy.

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Norwegian Chicken & Gjetost Sauce

1 chicken, 3 pounds 

1/2 cup cooking sherry

salt and white pepper to taste 

1/3 cup fresh chopped parsley 

2 tablespoons butter 

1/2 cup heavy cream

1 cup chicken broth 

1 cup shredded gjetost cheese* 

parsley for garnish

Cut chicken into serving-sized pieces and remove skin. Rub chicken with salt and pepper. Brown chicken in butter on all sides. Add broth and sherry to browned chicken. Reduce heat, cover and simmer for 45 minutes, until chicken is tender. Remove chicken to a serving platter and keep warm. Add parsley and cream to drippings. Bring to a simmer, stirring constantly, and cook until sauce is reduced to about 1 cup. Stir in cheese and cook just until it is melted. Pour sauce over chicken and serve garnished with parsley. Serves 4.

*Norwegian goat cheese found in specialty cheese shops.

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Norwegian Meatballs

2 pounds ground beef 

1 egg

1 tablespoon potato flour 

1/2 cup milk

1/2 teaspoon nutmeg 

1/2 teaspoon pepper 

2 teaspoons salt 

1/2 teaspoon ginger

1 tablespoon flour 

1 medium-sized onion, minced

Gravy: 1 cup milk

2 tablespoons flour 

dash nutmeg

salt and pepper

Mix all ingredients well and shape into balls. Brown the balls all around in a frying pan. Remove balls from pan and place on a serving platter .

Gravy: Sprinkle drippings from pan with flour and stir. Gradually add milk and stir until smooth. Season to taste.

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Roast Goose

1 10-pound goose 

1 1/2 cups peeled, cored and sliced apples 

salt and pepper 

4 cups boiling water 

1 cup soaked, pitted prunes 

flour

Season the goose inside and out with salt and pepper. Stuff with prunes and apples. Place in a large pan and brown the goose on all sides in a hot oven. Add 4 cups boiling water and baste. Roast for 3 hours at 325░. For crisp skin, pour 2 tablespoons of water over the goose and let brown additional 15 minutes. Skim fat from drippings and add flour to thicken for gravy.

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Roast Duck

1 5- to 7-pound duck 

1/2 pound prunes, soaked and pitted 

salt 

3 tart apples, peeled, halved, and cored

Wash, clean and dry duck. Rub inside with salt. Stuff with prunes and apples. Sprinkle duck with salt and place in an ungreased roasting pan, breast side up. Roast uncovered at 325░ for 45 minutes per pound. Do not prick skin with fork. Remove excess fat from pan during roasting.

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Spiced Meat Roll

1 flank of beef or lamb 

1/2 teaspoon saltpeter 

1/2 teaspoon ground allspice 

1 teaspoon pepper 

2 tablespoons salt 

1 onion, chopped

3 or 4 thin slices of pork 

Brine:

2 1/2 quarts boiling water 

2 cups salt

1/2 teaspoon saltpeter

Flatten meat and sprinkle with spices. Spread with onion and pork. Roll meat tightly like a jellyroll and sew ends and sides. Place in brine for 10 days. After 10 days remove meat from brine and wind with cord. Place in boiling water, reduce heat and cook for 2 hours or until tender. Remove from water and press between two flat surfaces until cold. Slice thinly and serve on bread. 

Brine: Combine all ingredients.

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Swedish Meatballs

Meatballs: 2 tablespoons finely minced onion 

2 pounds ground lean beef 

dash Worcestershire sauce 

1/2 cup oatmeal 

1/2 teaspoon nutmeg 

1 egg 

4 cups cooked rice

Gravy: 1/2 cup beer

1 tablespoon flour 

dash nutmeg

Meatballs: Combine all ingredients except rice; mix well. Shape into balls and brown all around in a skillet. Remove balls from pan.

Gravy: Add flour to meatball drippings; stir until smooth. Add beer and nutmeg. If too thick, add more beer; if too thin, add more flour. Stir meatballs into gravy .Serve hot over steaming hot rice.

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Traditional Icelandic Sunday Roast ..Embassy of Iceland, Washington, D.C.

1 leg of lamb 

butter

salt and pepper 

stock or hot water 

flour

Wipe lamb with a warm damp cloth. Rub salt and pepper into the meat. Top the roast with a few dots of butter. Place roast into a greased roaster. Bake at 450░ for 15 to 20 minutes. Reduce temperature to 350░. Pour stock or water into the roaster and cook for 15 minutes per pound, basting occasionally. When meat is done, skim the excess fat from the drippings and pour the drippings into a saucepan. Add enough flour to the drippings to make a smooth gravy.

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Vegetables & Side Dishes

Creamed Kale | Creamed Potatoes | Potato Cakes | Red Cabbage | Swedish Brown Beans | Sweet-Sour Cabbage


Creamed Kale

2 tablespoons butter 

1 cup milk

2 tablespoons flour 

2 cups finely chopped kale 

salt and pepper

Melt butter; add flour and stir until smooth. When mixture gets bubbly, gradually add milk. Cook 5 minutes. Add kale and simmer for 25 to 30 minutes. Season to taste.

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Creamed Potatoes Swedish

10 medium-sized potatoes peeled and diced

1 1/2 cups 1/2-and-1/2 cream 

1/2 tablespoon salt

2 tablespoons butter 

1/3 cup finely chopped dill, parsley, chives or leeks-any one or a mixture

Sautee potatoes in butter. Add cream and salt. Cook, covered, over low heat for about 15 to 20 minutes. Add remaining ingredient(s). Serves 4

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Potato Cakes

1/4 pound bacon 

1 egg, slightly beaten 

4 large potatoes, pared, cooked, and mashed

1/2 teaspoon allspice

1/2 teaspoon salt

1 tablespoon milk 

1 small onion, finely minced

Cook bacon crisp; drain on absorbent paper, reserving drippings. Crumble bacon into potatoes. Add milk, egg, allspice, salt, and onion. Beat until smooth. Shape into patties and fry in the reserved bacon grease. Serve hot. Serves 4.

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Red Cabbage

1 3-pound head cabbage 

1/4 cup sugar

2 tablespoons vinegar 

1 teaspoon salt

1/4 cup butter 

1/2 cup red currant jelly

1 medium-sized apple, cored and diced

Shred cabbage and sprinkle with vinegar to keep from darkening. Melt butter, stir in sugar and salt. Add cabbage and cook for 15 minutes. Add remaining ingredients and let simmer for 1 hour. Serve hot. Serves 8.

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Swedish Brown Beans

2 cups beans 

4 tablespoons vinegar

5 cups water 

4 tablespoons light molasses 

1 tablespoon flour salt to taste

Wash beans; drain. Cook beans in 5 cups water for 3 to 4 hours or until the beans are tender. Add more hot water as needed. Dissolve flour in a little water and add to beans. Add remaining ingredients; cook a few more minutes and serve hot. Serves 6.

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Sweet - Sour Cabbage Norwegian

1 head cabbage, finely shredded 

1/2 cup water

1 teaspoon salt 

1/4 cup vinegar

2 tablespoons sugar 

2 tablespoons caraway seed

Combine all ingredients. Bring to a boil and let simmer for 2 to 3 hours. Very good with pork roast.

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Pancakes, Porridges, Puddings & Pastries

AEbleskiver | Christmas Rice Porridge | Danish Pancakes | Icelandic Pancakes | Kram | Kringle | Lefse
Norwegian Cream Pudding
| Norwegian Pudding | Oven Pancakes | Skyr | Swedish Pancakes


AEbleskiver Danish

8 eggs, separated 

1 teaspoon cardamom 

1 tablespoon sugar 

1/2 cup butter, melted 

2 cups flour, sifted 

1 1/2 cups cream butter

Beat together egg yolks and sugar. Add flour and cardamom; mix well. Add butter and cream; blend thoroughly. Beat egg whites until stiff. Fold into batter . Fry in rebleskiver pan*. Heat pan over medium heat, melt 1 teaspoon butter in each hole. Fill hole completely and bake for a few minutes. Turn and fry until golden brown. Serve hot with jam and sugar. Makes about 3 dozen.

*Found in specialty and culinary shops.

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Christmas Rice Porridge

3/4 cup rice, uncooked 

1 tablespoon butter 

1 12 teaspoon salt 

1/3 cup sugar

1 1/2 cups boiling water 

1/2 teaspoon ground cardamom seed 

2 cups whipping cream 

1 whole almond, shelled*

2 cups milk 

1/2 cup sugar

1 cinnamon stick 

1 tablespoon ground cinnamon 

2 eggs, beaten 

2 cups 1/2-and-1/2 cream

Combine rice, salt, and boiling water. Simmer, covered, over low heat for 10 minutes. Add whipping cream, milk, cinnamon stick, eggs, butter, 1/3 cup sugar, cardamom, and almond. Place this mixture in a greased 2-quart casserole and bake for 2 hours at 325░. Combine remaining sugar and cinnamon. Serve rice pudding hot or cold with cinnamon-sugar mixture and 1/2-and-1/2. Serves 10. 

*Whoever gets the almond gets to make a wish.

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Danish Pancakes

4 eggs 

grated peel of 1 lemon 

1/3 cup sugar 

2 cups flour

1/2 teaspoon salt 

1 1/2 cups milk 

6 tablespoons butter, melted 

1/2 cup beer

butter for frying

Beat together eggs, sugar, salt, and melted butter. Combine lemon peel and flour. Add flour mixture and milk and beer alternately to egg mixture. Mix well; refrigerate for 1 hour. Heat a frying pan and add some butter. Pour enough batter to create a thin layer on the bottom of the frying pan. Shake the pan while frying to prevent sticking. When edges brown, flip the pancake and brown the other side. Repeat with remaining batter. Serve pancakes filled with stewed apples, jam, chopped almonds or custard cream. Serves 6.

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Icelandic Pancakes

2 eggs 

1 teaspoon baking powder 

1/3 cup sugar 

1 1/2 cups flour

1/4 teaspoon salt 

1/2 teaspoon vanilla 

1/2 teaspoon cinnamon 

1/2 cup sour cream 

1/2 teaspoon baking soda 

2 cups milk

Beat all ingredients together until smooth. Batter should be thin. Pour a little batter on a hot griddle and spread it to form a thin layer across the bottom of the pan. When browned, flip and brown the other side. Repeat with remaining batter. Serve sprinkled with additional sugar. Serves 4.

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Kram Glen & Virginia Arnold The Swedish Mill, Kingsburg, California

2 cups fruit juice 

3 tablespoons water 

1 cup whole boysenberries 

1/4 cup sugar

2 tablespoons cornstarch 

whipped cream

Bring juice and berries to a boil. Combine cornstarch and water. Stir sugar and cornstarch mixture into juice mixture. Cook until clear and thickened. Cool and serve with whipped cream.

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Kringle from the O&H Danish Bakery

Racine, Wisconsin

For 2 Kringles: 1/4 cup sugar

3/4 cup butter, softened, divided 

1/2 teaspoon salt

1 package or cake of yeast 

1/2 teaspoon lemon extract 

1/4 cup warm water 

1 egg

1/4 cup lukewarm milk 

2 cups sifted all-purpose flour

Butterscotch Filling: pinch of salt

1 cup brown sugar 

pinch of cinnamon 

1/3 cup butter 

1/2 egg white

Icing:

1 cup powdered sugar 

water

Kringle: Divide butter in half and spread each half on waxed paper to an 8 x 8- inch square. Chill. Dissolve yeast in warm water. Add lukewarm milk, sugar, salt, lemon extract, and egg, mixing well. Add flour and mix until smooth. Roll dough on well-floured board to an 8 x 12-inch rectangle. Place one piece of chilled butter on two-thirds of dough. Fold uncovered third of dough over the middle third, then fold the remaining third over the top. Again fold one end over middle third, and fold remaining third over top, making a square of nine layers. Wrap in waxed paper and refrigerate 30 minutes. Roll dough again to an 8 x 12-inch rectangle. Add second piece of chilled butter and fold the same way. This makes 18 layers. Refrigerate 2 hours. Cut dough into two equal pieces. Lightly roll one piece at a time, until piece is about 20 x 6 inches.

Filling: Mix filling ingredients until smooth. Spread center third of dough with butterscotch filling, then add fruit, nuts, raisins, and so on, or fill with jam. Fold one of the long edges to the middle, moisten other edge and fold over top to cover filling. Seal well. Put kringle on greased baking sheet and form into oval shape, pressing ends of kringle together to form a continuous circle. Flatten dough with hands. Cover kringle for one hour at 70░. Bake at 350░ for 25 to 30 minutes or until golden brown. Cool.

Icing: Combine powdered sugar with enough water to form a thin glaze. Frost cooled kringle.

Note: Kringles keep very well in the freezer, or several days in the refrigerator . The high butter content keeps them moist.

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Lefse Norwegian

5 well-packed cups of cooked, diced potatoes

3 tablespoons powdered sugar

2 cups flour

1/2 cup margarine 

1 teaspoon salt

Add margarine to potatoes while they are still warm. Cool to room temperature. Add powdered sugar, flour, and salt. Knead well and then roll into a log. Cut and measure into 1/3 cup portions, make a round ball of each. On a floured lefsa "board"* press each dough ball down and then, using a pastry sleeve and rolling pin, roll into 14-inch circles to fit a lefsa griddle*. The secret to making lefsa is the use of a lefsa stick*. For the last roll across the dough use a grooved lefsa rolling pin, which marks the dough and makes it thinner. Grill dough on a lefsa griddle for about 1 to 2 minutes on each side. Fold each lefsa in half or quarters. Cool between towels and store in plastic bags. 

*Found in specialty and culinary shops.

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Norwegian Cream Pudding

2 cups whipping cream 

1/2 teaspoon salt

1/2 cup flour 

2 tablespoons sugar

1 1/2 cups whole milk 

1 tablespoon cinnamon 

1/2 cup sugar

Bring cream to a boil. Sift flour into cream while beating with a whisk. Beat until smooth. Cook 15 minutes or until mixture is thick and comes away from the sides of the pan. Continue cooking until butterfat separates from flour mixture; pour off butterfat and reserve. Slowly stir in the milk, salt, and 2 tablespoons sugar. Heat mixture to a boil. Beat with a whisk until smooth or if the lumps persist, pour mixture into a blender and blend until smooth. Combine cinnamon and remaining sugar. Serve pudding hot with reserved butterfat and cinnamon- sugar mixture. Serves 6 to 8.

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Norwegian Pudding Anita Hanson Rapid City, South Dakota

Anita's husband is the pastor at Chapel in the Hills. The chapel is a replica of a twelfth century Norwegian church.

1/4 pound butter 

1/2 teaspoon salt

3/4 cup flour 

1 tablespoon sugar 

1 quart whole milk, heated 

butter 

sugar and cinnamon

Melt 1/4 pound butter and add flour; stir until smooth. Cook until bubbly. Gradually add milk, salt, and 1 tablespoon sugar. Cook until thickened. Serve with butter, sugar and cinnamon.

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Oven Pancake

1 cup milk 

1/2 teaspoon salt

2/3 cup flour 

2 eggs

2 tablespoons sugar 

1/2 teaspoon ground cardamom 

1/4 cup butter

Beat all ingredients, except butter, together until smooth. Place butter in a 9- inch pan and place in a 400░ oven until the butter melts. Pour batter into butter and bake for 35 minutes or until deep brown and puffy .Serves 2.

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Skyr Icelandic

4 quarts milk 

1 tablespoon sugar 

1/2 cup milk 

1/2 cup sour cream

1 egg 

12 drops rennet or 1/2 rennet pill dissolved in 1 tablespoon water

Scald 4 quarts of milk. Let cool to lukewarm or about 86░. Stir together the 1/2 cup milk, egg, sugar, and sour cream until smooth. Add rennet. Add to cooled milk and stir well. Set aside in a crock or bowl in a warm place, covered with a heavy towel or blanket, for about 24 hours. The milk should curdle. Strain whey from curds through a bag made of muslin or 3 thicknesses of cheesecloth. Stir curds well and serve with sugar and cream.

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Swedish Pancakes Glen & Virginia Arnold - The Swedish Mill, Kingsburg, California

2 egg yolks 

1/4 cup sugar

4 eggs 

1 1/2 cups flour

2 1/4 cups milk 

1/2 cup butter, melted

Mix all ingredients together. Set aside for at least 1/2 hour, up to overnight. On a hot griddle spread about 1/4 cup of batter out thinly. Grill on both sides until golden brown. Repeat with remaining batter. Serve with lingonberries, jam or syrup. Serves 3.

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Breads

Cardamom Coffee Braid | Cardamom Crackers | Cardamom Horns | Hard Tack | Holiday Bread
Icelandic Brown Bread
| Potato and Barley Flat Bread | Rusk | Shrove Tuesday Buns | Swedish Almond Rusk
Swedish Rye Bread | White Potato Bread


Cardamom Coffee Braid

2 envelopes active dry yeast

5 eggs divided 

1/2 cup warm water

8 to 9 cups all -purpose flour 

2 cups milk, scalded and cooled

1/2 cup butter, melted

1 cup sugar

2 tablespoons milk

3 teaspoons salt, divided

1/2 cup sliced almonds

1 teaspoon freshly crushed cardamom

1/2 cup coarsely crushed sugar cubes

Dissolve yeast in warm water. Set aside for 5 minutes. Stir in milk, sugar, 2 teaspoons salt, cardamom, 4 eggs and 4 cups of flour. Beat until smooth. Gradually add enough flour to make a stiff dough. Turn out onto a lightly floured surface. Let rest for 15 minutes. Knead for 10 minutes. Wash and grease bowl. Return dough to bowl and turn once to grease top. Let rise until doubled in bulk, about 2 hours. Punch dough down and let rise again until doubled in bulk, about 45 minutes. Divide dough into 3. Divide each piece into 3. Roll each piece between your palms to make rope 30 inches long. Braid 3 ropes together to make a loaf. Pinch ends together and tuck ends under loaf. Repeat with remaining dough. Place each loaf on a greased baking sheet. Let rise until doubled in bulk, about 45 to 60 minutes. Combine remaining egg, salt and 2 tablespoons of milk. Brush loaves with egg glaze. Sprinkle with almonds and crushed sugar cubes. Bake at 375 degrees for 25 to 30 minutes or until crust is lightly browned. Cool on racks. Makes 3 braids.

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Cardamom Crackers (these are made with a Norwegian "goro" iron found in specialty shops)

3 eggs

1 cup sugar

1 cup whipping cream, whipped

6 cups all-purpose flour

1/4 teaspoon salt

1 cup butter, melted

1 teaspoon ground cardamom

Cut a pattern piece of paper the same size as the goro iron then set it aside. Beat together all ingredients to make a stiff dough. Divide dough into 4. Roll out each piece to a rectangle that is about 1/8 inch thick. Cut dough using goro iron paper pattern. Place the iron on the stove over medium heat until a drop of water dropped on the iron sizzles and bounces off the iron. Place a piece of dough in the iron and close. Cook 1 to 2 minutes on each side or until golden brown. Cool on rack. Repeat with remaining dough. Makes about 36 crackers.

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Cardamom Horns

2 eggs

6 tablespoons sugar

1 envelope active dry yeast

4 tablespoons warm water

6 cups flour

1 1/2 tablespoons salt

6 tablespoons butter

1 1/2 cups lukewarm milk

1 teaspoon crushed cardamom seeds

Dissolve yeast in water. Set aside for 5 minutes. Cream butter and sugar. Add yeast mixture and all remaining ingredients. Cover and let rise until doubled in bulk. Punch dough down and divide into 4 pieces. Roll out each piece into a circle and cut each circle into 8 wedges. Roll each wedge from the wide end and pinch end to seal, forming a horn. Place horns onto greased baking sheets and let rise until doubled in bulk. Bake at 375 for 10 to 12 minutes. Serve with butter.

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Hard Tack

1/2 cup sugar

1/2 teaspoon soda

1 cup flour

4 cups oatmeal

1/2 cup butter, melted

1cup milk

Combine all ingredients. Let stand overnight. Roll out dough very think. You may have to use additional milk to get the dough to roll out. Cut into desired shapes and bake at 350 for about 10 to 15 minutes or until browned.

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Holiday Bread

2 envelopes active dry yeast

1 cup mixed diced candied fruit

1/4 cup warm water

1 cup golden raisins

1/2 cup sugar, divided

1 cup slivered blanched almonds

2 cups milk, scalded and cooled

2 tablespoons milk

3 eggs, divided

1/4 cup coarsely crushed sugar cubes

1/2 cup butter, melted

1 cup powdered sugar

3 teaspoons salt, divided

2 tablespoons water

1 teaspoon crushed cardamom seeds

1 teaspoon vegetable oil

6 1/2 to 8 cups all-purpose flour

1/2 teaspoon almond extract

Combine yeast, warm water, and 1 tablespoon granulated sugar. Set aside for 5 minutes. .Stir in remaining sugar, milk, 2 slightly beaten eggs, butter, 2 teaspoons salt, cardamom and 3 cups of flour. Beat until smooth. Add enough of the remaining flour to make a stiff dough. Let rest for 10 minutes. Turn out onto a lightly floured surface and knead for 10 minutes. Knead in fruit. Wash and grease bowl. Place dough in bowl and turn once to grease top. Cover and let rise until doubled un bulk, about 1 1/2 hours. Divide dough into thirds. Shape each piece into a round loaf and place seam-side-down into 3 greased 8-inch round pans. Combine remaining egg, salt and milk. Brush loaves with egg mixture. Let rise until doubled in bulk, about 1 hour. Brush loaves again with egg mixture and sprinkle with crushed sugar cubes. Bake at 375 for 25 to 30 minutes, or until loaves test done. Cool on racks. Combine powdered sugar, water, oil and almond extract. Spread over loaves. 

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Icelandic Brown Bread (Fred Bjornson, Cedar Rapids, Iowa)

1/2 cup warm water

1/2 cup molasses

2 packages yeast

6 cups whole-wheat flour

2 cups scalded milk

4 cups white flour

2 cups water

1 teaspoon salt

1 cup brown sugar

1/2 cup melted butter

Dissolve yeast in warm water. Combine milk, water, sugar and molasses. Cool to lukewarm. Add yeast mixture, salt, and 1/2 the flour. Beat until smooth. Gradually add the remaining flour and knead in the butter. Cover and let rise until doubled in bulk, about 1 hour. Punch down and let rise again for 1 hour. Punch down then knead. Divide into 3 or 4 loaves and place in loaf pans. Let rise again until doubled in size. Bake at 350 for 1 hour.

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Potato and Barley Flat Bread

1 cup buttermilk

1 teaspoon baking soda

1 cup mashed potatoes

1 cup barley

1/2 cup melted butter

2 cups uncooked rolled oats

1 teaspoon salt

2 cups all-purpose flour

melted butter for top

Combine all ingredients in order given. Stir to make a smooth dough. Turn out onto a barley-covered surface and divide dough into 4 parts. Roll out each part to make a circle of 10 to 12 inches in diameter. Place on greased baking sheets and pierce all over with a fork. Bake at 450 for 10 minutes. Brush with melted butter. Serve hot. Makes 4 loaves.

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Rusk

1 cups sugar

3 cups flour

1 cups oleo

1 teaspoon baking powder

2 eggs

1 teaspoon almond extract

3 tablespoons sour cream

1/3 teaspoon salt

1/8 teaspoon baking soda

1/2 cup almonds, chopped

Cream sugar and oleo. Add eggs. Combine sour cream and baking soda. Add to sugar mixture. Add remaining ingredients and mix well. Shape into loaves and place in 2 loaf pans. Bake at 350 for 30 to 35 minutes. When cool slice and toast.

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Shrove Tuesday Buns

1 envelope active dry yeast

1/2 teaspoon ground cardamom or ground cinnamon

1/4 cup warm water

2 eggs, divided

2 3/4 to 3 cups all-purpose flour, divided

2/3 cup milk, scalded and cooled

2 tablespoons milk

1/4 cup sugar

8 ounces almond paste

1 1/2 teaspoons salt, divided

1/2 cup whipping cream

1/2 cup butter, softened

2 tablespoons powdered sugar

additional powdered sugar

SAUCE:

1/2 cup all-purpose flour

8 cups milk

1/4 teaspoon salt

4 teaspoons vanilla extract

1/2 cup sugar

2 tablespoons butter

Dissolve yeast in water and set aside for 5 minutes. Beat in 1 egg, milk, sugar, 1/2 teaspoon salt, butter, spice, and 2 cups flour. Add enough remaining flour to make a stiff dough. Turn onto a lightly floured surface and knead for about 10 minutes. Wash and grease the bowl. Place dough into the bowl and turn once to grease top. Let rise until doubled in bulk, about 1 hour. Divide dough into 3, then divide each piece into 4. Shape each piece into a round bun about 1 inch high. Place on greased baking sheets, let rise for about 1 hour. Combine remaining egg, salt, and 2 tablespoons milk. Brush buns with egg mixture. Bake buns at 400 for about 10 to 12 minutes or until golden. Cool on racks. Cut almond paste into 16 slices. About 1/3 from the top, cut the buns horizontally almost through the bun. Insert a slice of almond paste into each bun. Combine the whipped cream and 2 tablespoons powdered sugar. Fill each bun with whipped cream until the top slice is held open by the whipped cream. Sprinkle powdered sugar over filling and bun.

Sauce: In a saucepan, combine flour, salt, and sugar. Slowly stir in milk. Bring to a boil over medium heat, stirring constantly. Cook until thickened. Stir in vanilla and butter until butter melts. Place hot sauce into 16 serving bowls and place a bun into the sauce.

Unfilled buns may be frozen. To serve, thaw and fill.

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Swedish Almond Rusk

1 cup sugar

3 cups flour

1 cup oleo

1 teaspoon baking powder

2 eggs

1 teaspoon almond extract

3 tablespoons sour cream

1/4 teaspoon salt

1/8 teaspoon baking soda

1/2 cup almonds, chopped

Cream sugar and oleo. Add eggs. Combine sour cream and baking soda. Add to sugar mixture. Add remaining ingredients and mix well. Shape into loaves and place in 2 loaf pans. Bake at 350 for 30 to 35 minutes. When cool slice and toast.

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Swedish Rye Bread

1 envelope active dry yeast

2 tablespoons sugar

1/2 cup warm water

2 tablespoons butter, melted

1 tablespoon fennel seeds

2 cups milk, scalded and cooled

1 tablespoon anise seeds

3 cups rye flour

1 teaspoon salt

3 to 3 1/2 cups all-purpose flour

Dissolve yeast in warm water. Set aside 5 minutes. Crush fennel and anise seeds into a powder with a mortar and pestle. Add powdered seeds, salt, sugar, butter, milk, and rye flour to yeast mixture. Beat well. Add enough flour to mixture to make a stiff dough. Let rest for 15 minutes. Turn dough onto a floured surface and knead until smooth, about 10 minutes. Wash bowl and grease. Place dough into bowl and turn once to grease top. Cover and let rise until doubled in bulk, about 2 hours. Punch dough down and divide into 4 parts. Shape each piece into a ball. Place the balls onto 2 greased baking sheets. Let rise for about 1 hour. Bake at 375 for 25 minutes, or until loaves test done. Cool on racks.

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White Potato Bread

1 envelope active dry yeast

3 eggs

1/4 cup sugar

1/2 cup warm water

1/2 cup butter, softened

1 cup cooked mashed potatoes

1 cup milk

6 to 7 cups all-purpose flour

Dissolve yeast in warm water. Set aside 5 minutes. Add sugar, butter, milk, eggs, potatoes. Beat until smooth. Gradually add enough flour to make a stiff dough. Turn onto a lightly floured surface and let rest for 10 minutes. Knead dough for about 10 minutes, adding flour as needed. Wash and grease bowl. Place dough in bowl and turn to grease top. Cover and let rise until doubled in bulk about 2 hours. Punch dough down and divide in half. Shape each half into a loaf. Place in 2 9x5 inch greased loaf pans. Let rise until doubled in bulk about 1 hour. Bake at 375 for 30 to 35 minutes or until loaves test done. Cool on racks.

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Cakes, Cookies & Desserts

Almond Tarts | Apple Cake | Asa's Kleinur | Berlinerkranser | Cloudberries & Whipped Cream 

Danish Butter Cookies | Finnish Christmas Prune Tarts | Fluted Cookie Tarts | Fruit Cookies | Gingersnaps 

Icelandic Rolled Cookies | Icelandic Prune Cake | Krumkage | Marzipan Candy | May Day Crullers 

Medals | Peppernuts | Rosettes | Spritz | Swedish Cookies | Wreaths

Lingonberry Torte | Norwegian Wedding Cake | Sandcake

 

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 Valdis Isbrandsdottir
   

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